Chronic Kidney Disease

What is Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic kidney disease develops when the kidneys have been damaged by conditions or diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension) or inflammation of the filtering units in the kidneys (glomerulonephritis). This damage can occur gradually over months or years making it particularly dangerous since symptoms may not appear until damage has already been done.

When abnormal kidney function persists for three months or longer, chronic kidney disease occurs.  This affects your kidneys ability to keep you healthy.

What Are Functions Of Kidneys?

They have several important jobs:

Remove waste, drugs, and extra fluid from the body through the urine.
Release hormones that help to:
Regulate Blood Pressure
Promote Strong Bones.
Prevent Anemia by increasing red blood cells.
Maintain the correct balance of important electrolytes in your blood such as potassium, sodium, phosphorus and calcium.

Chronic kidney disease is a progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are not specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative with CKD. This disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia, or pericarditis.[1] It is differentiated from acute kidney disease in that the reduction in kidney function must be present for over 3 months.

Acute Kidney Injury

What causes acute kidney injury?

Acute kidney injury has three main causes:

A sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys. Heavy blood loss, an injury, or a bad infection called sepsis can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) also can harm the kidneys.
Damage from some medicines, poisons, or infections. Most people don’t have any kidney problems from taking medicines. But people who have serious, long-term health problems are more likely than other people to have a kidney problem from medicines. Examples of medicines that can sometimes harm the kidneys include:
Antibiotics, such as gentamicin and streptomycin.
Pain medicines, such as naproxen and ibuprofen.
Some blood pressure medicines, such as ACE inhibitors.
The dyes used in some X-ray tests.

A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys. Kidney stones, a tumor, an injury, or an enlarged prostate gland can cause a blockage.

What are the symptoms?

Sings and Symptoms of acute kidney injury may include:

Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal
Fluid retention, causing swelling especially in your legs, ankles or feet
Shortness of breath
Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
Not feeling like eating.
Nausea and vomiting.
Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain.
Chest pain or pressure
Seizures or coma in severe cases